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              Matumizi ya neno "have" kama auxiliaty verb. (Kwa wasomaji wa kiwango cha juu na kati (For advanced and ordinary learners)

   Hali kuu za neno hili ni "Have, had, had na likiwa katika verbal noun (Gerund) (kitenzi jina) huwa ni "having". Neno have lina maana zifuatazo kwa ufupi kabla hata hatujaingia katika mada yetu. Neno hilo lina maana zifuatazo:

(a)  Kuwa katika hali ya kumiliki kitu, Ujuzi, elimu, kuwa na kitu kichwani, tabia fulani au sifa fulanii; Mathalan:   Canoksan has a website. (Canoksan anamiliki website)

Noel has doubt about the genuineness of your stock. Katika maana nyingine, neno hili (Have) lina maana ya "kupata" au "kupokea" Angalia mfano huu.  I had a letter from my brother. (Nilipokea barua kutoka kwa kaka yangu)

       Hilal has a great deal of noise.(="Hilal ana kelele sana" na hapa ni kumiliki sifa). Kwa maelezo zaidi kuhusu maana za neno have Click hapa La sivyo endelea na somo letu hilo

  Muundo katika Present tense (wakati uliopo):

   Affirmative      Negative (kukanusha)            interrogative. (kuuliza)

I have

You have

He has 

She has

We have

They have

You have

I have not/ haven't

You have not/ haven't

He has not/ hasn't

She has not/hasn't

We have not/ haven't

They have not/haven't

You have not/haven't

 Have I?

Have you?

Has he?

Has she?

Have we?

Have they?

Have you? 

    Vifupisho katika negative hutumika hususan katika perfect tense (wakati wa hali timilifu), mfano I've not done it. n.k.

Katika wakati uliopita neno has au have huwa "had" na neno "Had" hutumika katika nafsi zote bila kujali kuwa ni nafsi ya kwanza umoja ya pili au ya tatu. mfano;

I had just done it.

You had told me.

He had left.

She had been married.

  Katika affirmative, negative na interrogative, auxiliary hii huwa kama auxiliaries nyingine zilivyo katika muundo mzima wa sentensi za namna hii, mfano;

Affirmative       Interrogative           Affirmative          Negative.

I had done it,      Had I done it?            Yes. I had.            No. I hadn't.

        "Have" hutumika katika perfect tense (wakati uliopo timilifu) kutengenezea sentensi za kuonyesha tendo ambalo limekamilika, waweza ukaclick hapa ukaona namna inavyotumika.

Matumizi ya neno hili hutegemea na muundo wa sentensi ulivyo, kwa mfano;

(B)  Ikiwa katika muundo wa HAVE + Object + Past participle

  Amma ikiwa katika muundo huo hapo juu huwa na maana ya "ninafanyiwa kitu na mtu fulani" au "nimemwajiri mtu anifanyie kitu fulani" au "nimemuomba mtu anifanyie kiti fulani". basi badala ya maelezo hayo marefu tunasema "I have something done", mathalan unataka kusema, "nimempa fundi kiatu anishonee" utasema kwa ufupi tu, "I have my shoes mended" na badala ya kusema "I got a man to clean my house" (neno "Got" hapa = kushawishi au kwa kumlipa n.k.) twaweza kusema "I have my house cleaned".

   Kumbuka kuwa mpangilio huu wa maneno (have + object  + past participle) ni lazima uzingatiwe, la sivyo maana yake hubadilika ikiwa muundo huu utapindishwa, kwa mfano mtu akisema "She had her hair dressed" ni kuwa "Yeye mwanamke amesukwa" (yaani amemwagiza/amemuajiri/amemuomba mtu amsuke nywele). Lakini katika mpangilio tofauti kama "He had dressed her hair" humaanisha kuwa amesuka mwenyewe nywele zake kipindi kidogo kilichopita kabla ya maongezi haya (Past perfect tense). Tazama vizuri tofauti kati ya muundo wa kwanza na wa pili hapo kwenye sentensi hizo; Muundo wa kwanza ni

SUBJECT +HAVE + OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE muundo wa pili ni SUBJECT+ HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE + OBJECT

  Wakati neno "have" likitumika katika njia hiyo iliyotajwa hapo juu, negative (sentensi za kukanusha) na interrogative (Sentensi za maulizo katika wakati wake uliopita na uliopo huweza kutumika  kutengenezea au kuundia sentensi kwa kutumia neno "do".Kwa  mfano;

Do you have your shoes polished every morning? ~ I don't have them polished,  I polish them myself. (Yaani: "Je, viatu vyako upigiwa polish kila asubuhi? ~ Hapana, sipigiwi polish, Napiga mwenyewe.

He was talking about having central heating put in. Did he have it put in the end?

Does he have his breakfast prepared?  ~ I don't think so, but what I know is that, he prepares it himself.

  Pia yaweza ikatumika vilevile katika wakati uliopo hali ya kuendelea (Continuous tenses): Kwa mfano

  I am not intending to have lunch here, I am having my lunch prepared at Nuru's.

(=Sitegemei kula chakula cha mchana hapa. Nimeandaliwa chakula changu cha mchana kwa Nuru.)

While he was having his book written, his teacher rebuked him.

Na sasa tuone namna ya kutumia neno "GET" mahali pa neno "HAVE"

   Tunaweza kupata neno jingine ambalo huweza kutumika badala ya neno "have" lakini sio kila wakati, litatumika tu pale tunapotaka kunamtaja mfanyaji wa kitendo;

   She got him to push her car from the mud  as it was crashed .= alimshawishi/ alimuajiri/alimuomba amsukumie gari hilo (Neno "Get" hapa ni katika kumshawishi mtu akufanyie kitu iwe ni kwa kumuomba au kwa malipo kama ilivyo kwenye "have") hapo juu.

 Neno "Have" hutumika likiwa na bare infinitive (Infinitive tupu (yaani kitenzi bila ya neno "to") kwa maana ya kushawishi kama tuliyoitaja hapo juu, (Mfano wa infinitive bila ya neno "to" ni kama "eat" na ikiwa ina neno "to" inakuwa "to eat"). Kwa hiyo ndio tunasema kuwa neno "Have" hutumika likiwa na kitenzi tupu (Bila neno "to") kumaanisha kumshawishi mtu afanye kazi fulani aidha kwa ujira au vinginevyo kama ambavyo tulivyoona hapo juu tukielezea neno "have"

  She had him to push her car from the mud. (= "Yeye (mwanamke) alimshawishi au pia inawezekana alimuomba (huyo mwanaume) amsukumie gari lake kutoka katika matope" Lakini muundo wa get ni wa kawaida zaidi kutumika katika Kiingereza cha Uingereza (British English). Na sasa tutazame muundo mwingine wa sentensi za "Have"

(C) MUUNDO WA HAVE + OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE katika maongezi ya kufanyiwa mabaya au kupata mabalaa;

 Muundo wa kanuni hii "Have + object + past participle" hutumika katika maongezi katika kuchukua nafasi ya mtendewa (passive voice), kikawaida yule anayehusika na ajali au mabalaa au bahati mbaya nyinginezo Kwa mfano: Badala ya kusema

"Her car was stolen as she was watching TV in his sitting room". utasema

"She had her car stolen as she was watching TV in her sitting room". Na badala ya kusema hivi; "Their fingers were cut as they were fighting the armed robbers." utasema;

"They had their fingers cut as they were fighting the armed robbers". (=Vidole vyao vilikatwa wakati walipokuwa wakipigana na majambazi yenye silaha) Kumbuka kuwa neno "as" hapo juu lina maana sawa na neno "when" ambalo kwa Kiswahili ni "wakati" (Mfano, "Wakati alipokuwa...")

   Itaonekana kuwa, katika sehemu B hapo juu, subject (mfanyaji au mhusika wa kitendo) ndiye huagiza kitendo kikafanyika, lakini hapa katika sehemu C (Yaani sehemu hii), subject ndiye ambaye hupata shida au huathirika au huumia kutokana na matokeo ya kitendo. subject yaweza kuwa kitu. mfano;

The houses had their roofs ripped off the gale. (Nyumba zilitolewa paa zake na upepo wa kimbunga). Tunaona kuwa subject ni nyumba, na ndizo zimeathirika hapa. Lakini tukisema hivi:- I have all my clothes ironed every Sunday. (-"Ninapigiwa pasi nguo zangu zote kila Jumapili") Hapa muhusika huagiza kitendo kifanyike na hufanyika. Hufanyiwa kazi yake.

  Kumbuka kuwa neno "have" laweza kuchukuliwa mahali pake likakaa neno "get" hapa katika sehemu hapa,

  •     Abdul got his book stolen through his carelessness (Abdul aliibiwa vitabu vyake...).

  •     The man got his car crashed as a result of his recklessly driving.  

  •     He got his house torched.

 Neno had + better + bare infinitive (= "Had better" likifuatiwa na bare infinitive (Yaani kitenzi bila ya neno "to") mfano I had better go right now (=Ni bora niende sasa hivi) neno "go" ni bare infinitive kwa sababu halijatanguliwa na neno "to" na kuwa "To go"

       Neno "Had" hapa ni wakati uliopita usio halisi (Kwa Kiswahili ni kama "..nge, maana yake vile vile huwa wakati ujao au uliopo, lakini usio halisi. Nasema hivyo kwa kuwa Kiswahili nikisema "Ningekwenda" ni wakati ujao uliopita lakini sio halisi, Au nikisema, "Ingekuwa bora ungefanya haraka" hapa tunaongelea kitu kimepita lakini sio halisi. Nikisema sio halisi nina maana hakijatendeka kweli. Mfano katika Kiingereza

  •   I had better tell him the truth tomorrow. (Maana yake ni kuwa, "Ingekuwa vizuri kumueleza ukweli kesho.) "Ingekuwa" ni wakati uliopita lakini haikufanyika

  • I had better tell him the truth now. ("Ingekuwa vizuri nimweleze ukweli sasa")

  • You'd better go to school tomorrow. (=Bora ungeenda shule kesho)

  •  You'd (You had) better go to school now ("Bora ungeenda shule sasa") hii inaonyesha wakati huu uliopo na hiyo ya kwanza huonyesha wakati uliopita.

 Ikiwa tunataka kutumia maneno ya kukanusha katika sehemu hii, ukikanusha utatumia neno "Not" ambalo ni la kawaida kutumika kukanushia na linakuwa katika sentensi kama ifuatavyo;

  You'd better (You had better) not miss the first flight. ("Haingekuwa vizuri" au "Haingekuwa busara/Hungeikosa ndege ya kwanza" au "Nakushauri usiikose" au "Nakuonya usiikose" ) au waweza kuifupisha na kusema katika sentensi za maulizo (Interrogative sentences). Had better sio kawaida uikute inatumika katika sentensi za kuuliza (interrogative) za kawaida, lakini mara nyingine hutumika katika sentensi za kukanushia (negative sentences) katika mfumo wa kutoa ushauri.

"Je, haingekuwa vizuri kumuomba kwanza kabla hujaichukua?" inakuwa hivi,

" Hadn't you better ask him first before taking it?"

Tunapotaka kumshauri mtu, mara nyingi maneno "You had better". Hii hutumika sana katika Kiingereza kwa ushauri  na maana yake ni kuwa "ingekuwa vizuri kwako kufanya jambo fulani, Mfano "You had better start your works now" (= ingekuwa vizuri/ Nakunasihi/Nakushauri ukianza kazi zako sasa hivi). 

   Neno "Had better" ni sahihi kutumia katika sentensi za kuuliza maswali (Interrogative) ya kawaida lakini sio kawaida sana kuwakuta watu wanalitumia katika hali kama hii, wakati mwingine hutumika katika negative interrogative (Maswali kanushi). kama hivyo tulivyoona hapo juu katika sentensi hii; Kumbuka kuwa neno "had better" katika nafsi 

"Hadn't you better ask him first before taking it?" (=Je, haingekuwa vizuri kumuomba kwanza kabla hujaichukua?")

  Tazama kanuni ifuatayo katika muundo huu uliobeba neno hili na zingatie matumizi na maana ya muundo huu katika sentensi,

  Have + Object + present participle (..ing)   (Yaani hapa katika mpangilio wa Have + Mtendewa/Mlengwa + neno lililoishia na ..ing> )

 Mifano;

   "I'll have you speaking English in three months" (Yaani kutokana na matunda ya jitihada yangu inshaaAllah, utaweza kuongea Kiingereza katika miezi mitatu)

    Yaweza ikatumika pia katika past (wakati uliopita) au present (Wakati uliopo), Mathalan

"He had them all learning" (Aliwafundisha au aliwalipia au aliwapa moyo au aliwashawishi wote wasome ) (Hapa ni katika mfano unaotuonyesha wakati uliopita)

   Vile vile yaweza kutumika katika interrogative form (Muundo wa maulizo) kama ifuatavyo;

   "Will you really have me speaking English in three months?" (Kweli utaniwezesha niongee Kiingereza katika miezi mitatu?).

 "I have him committing to memory the noble Qur'aan" (Mimi huwa namshawishi au nampa moyo ahifadhi Qur'aan Tukufu"). (Hapa ni katika Wakati uliopo)

   Lakini kumbuka kuwa sio mara nyingi mfumo huu hapa hutumika kukanusha. Katika sentensi mbili za mwisho hapo juu, ya kwanza hudokeza wakati ujao na ya pili ni wakati uliopo)

   Katika kukupa mifano zaidi ya kutumia neno hili, tazama sentensi hizi;

 "If you drive on the road recklessly you will have the pedestrians complaining" (Ikiwa utaendesha kwa fujo barabarani utasababisha watembeaji kwa miguu watalalamikie)

  "If Hilal teaches English for free he would have everyone joining his class" (Kama hilal angefundisha Kiingereza bure, utafanya/utasababisha kila mtu ajiunge darasani kwake). `Katika Kiingereza, have ni miongoni mwa causative verbs (Vitenzi vya kusababisha)

Mifano mingine ni kama vile

      "If you won't have your shoes mended, you won't have anyone to respect you" (=kama hutashonewa kiatu chako, hutaheshimika)

       "I don't have her coming at my home when I drink".

  Muundo huo waweza kutumika katika kukanusha na kuuliza (negative and interrogative form) kama unavyoona hapo juu, muundo huu pia hutumika sana kwa vitendo ambavyo vinavyomkera au kumbughudhi mhusika/mtajwa (subject). mfano,

  "When he became famous, he had many people came at his home often and squandered much time in talking with him"

= Alipokuwa maarufu watu wengi walikuja nyumbani kwake mara kwa mara na kupoteza muda mwingi kuongea naye

  Lakini muundo wa I won't have + object + present participle kwa kawaida huwa na maana ya "Sito/sitakubali hili.

    Mfano, ukitaka kusema "Sitamruhusu/sitamkubalia aingie hapa na nguo zake chafu" itakuwa hivi

"I won't have him enter here in his dirty clothes"

Mengineyo ni kama hivi;

"I won't have him using my computer"

"I won't have my son drinking"

   Kwa ufupi tumeona baadhi ya matumizi ya neno have. Kumbuka kuwa neno hilo pia huweza kutumika kuelezea wajibu (kama ambavyo inshaaAllah tunavyoona hapa chini:-

Police have to be in uniform.  (Polisi wanawajibu wa kuvaa nguo zao za kipolisi)

 Vile vile lina maana ya kuwa na kitu (Kumiliki kitu) mfano;

I have a red car. Juma has a blue pen. (Nina gari jekundu. Juma ana kalamu ya bluu).

  Neno Have ina maana kwa mahali pengine ya "Kula" mfano; I have had lunch" (Simple present tense) Nimekula chakula cha mchana" na wakati uliopita timilifu (past perfect tense) huwa hivi "I had had lunch"

   Hitimisho na ziada ya somo letu:

 Kuhusu have kama causative verb: Kama ambavyo tulivyoona hapo juu nilitaja kwa juu juu sana kuhusu neno "causative verb" . Causative ni muundo wa kawaida sana katika Sarufi ya Kiingereza. Inatumika wakati mtu au kitu kusababisha mtu au kitu afanye au kifanye kitu fulani;- Hapa nitadokeza kidogo tu namna causative hutokekea (hutengenezwa) na namna ya kuzitumia.

  Msingi wa Sarufi ya causative: (Umbo la causative)

  Zipo misingi kuu mbili za sarufi ya causative. Moja kama Active (Mtenda) na ingine kama Passive (Mtendewa). Tuutazame mifano katika muono wa haraka haraka tuweze kuzitambua.

 I had Muhsin fix the computer (=Nimepangilia computer yangu itengenezwe na Muhsin= Nimemsababishia/nimemfanya aitengeneze). Lakini angalia mfumo huu hapa chini

I had my computer fixed (="Nilipangilia computer yangu itengenezwe na mtu fulani" Hapa hatujui nani huyu aliyetengeneza. Kama kawaida ni kuwa mara nyingi tunapoongelea passive voice huwa tunaangalia kama kitu kimefanywa tu na hatuna haja ya kumjua mfanyaji.) Kwa hiyo hapa ni causative verb tukiongelea neno "have"

Mpangilio wa causative ni kama hapa chini unavyoona.

 Subject  + causative verb + Agent + action verb + Object

 I                had             the boss     pay       my money

 Tutazame kidogo passive causative muundo wake unavyokuwa:

Subject  + Causative verb  + Object  +  Action verb

I            had                            my computer  fixed ( Kwa faida tu ni kuwa causative verbs nyingine ni kama "Get" ambayo nayo tumeiongelea kidogo hapo juu. Canoksan inakupa faida hizi zaidi katika website yake ya Kiswahili kwa Kiingereza, lakini nisikuache hivi hivi bali tu nikutajie causative verbs baadhi kama vile "Allow, make, force, compel, na let." kumbuka kuwa neno get inafanya kazi kama have katika causative verbs pia."

  Kwa maswali wasiliana nasi katika anuani yetu canoksan@yahoo.com

 

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