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canoksanhilal Online Swahili English Page

 

 

Muhraja's online Swahili English course

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              Matumizi ya neno "have" kama auxiliaty verb.

   Hali kuu za neno hili ni "Have, had, had na likiwa katika verbal noun (Gerund) (kitenzi jina) huwa ni "having"

    Present tense

   Affirmative         Negative                        interrogative.

I have

You have

He has 

She has

We have

They have

You have

 

I have not/ haven't

You have not/ haven't

He has not/ hasn't

She has not/hasn't

We have not/ haven't

They have not/haven't

You have not/haven't

 

  Have I?

Have you?

Has he?

Has she?

Have we?

Have they?

Have you? 

 

    vifupisho katika negative hutumika hususan katika perfect tense, mfano I've not done it. n.k.

Katika wakati uliopita neno "has au have" huwa "had" na neno "Had" hutumika katika nafsi zote bila kujali kuwa ni nafsi ya kwanza umoja ya pili au ya tatu. mfano;

I had just done it.

You had told me.

He had left.

She had been married.

  Katika affirmative, negative na interrogative, auxiliary hii huwa kama auxiliaries nyingine zilivyo katika muundo mzima wa sentensi za namna hii, mfano;

Affirmative       Interrogative           Affirmative          Negative.

I had done it,      Had I done it?            Yes. I had.            No. I hadn't.

        "Have" hutumika katika perfect tense (wakati uliopo timilifu) kutengenezea sentensi, waweza ukaclick hapa ukaona namna inavyotumika.

Matumizi ya neno hili hutegemea na muundo wa sentensi ulivyo, kwa mfano;

(B)  Ikiwa katika muundo wa HAVE + Object + Past participle

  Amma ikiwa katika muundo huo hapo juu huwa na maana ya "ninafanyiwa kitu na mtu fulani" au "nimemwajiri mtu anifanyie kitu fulani" au "nimemuomba mtu anifanyie kiti fulani". basi badala ya maelezo hayo marefu tunasema "I have something done", mathalan unataka kusema, "nimempa fundi kiatu anishonee" utasema kwa ufupi tu, "I have my shoes mended" na badala ya kusema "I got a man to clean my house" (neno "Got" hapa = kushawishi au kwa kumlipa n.k.) twaweza kusema "I have my house clened".

   Kumbuka kuwa mpangilio huu wa maneno (have + object (Kitu) + past participle) ni lazima uzingatiwe, la sivyo maana yake hubadilika ikiwa muundo huu utapindishwa, kwa mfano mtu akisema "She had her hair dressed" ni kuwa amemuajiri msusi (yaani amemwagiza mtu amsuke nywele) lakini katika mpangilio huu "He had dressed her hair" humaanisha kuwa amesuka mwenyewe nywele zake kipindi kidogo kilichopita kabla ya maongezi haya (Past perfect tense). Tazama tofauti kati ya muundo wa kwanza na wa pili hapo kwenye sentensi hizo; Muundo wa kwanza ni

SUBJECT +HAVE + OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE muundo wa pili ni SUBJECT+ HAVE + PAST PARTICIPLE + OBJECT

  Wakati neno "have" likitumika katika njia hiyo iliyotajwa hapo juu, negative na interrogative (sentensi za kukanusha na sentensi za maulizo katika wakati wake uliopita na uliopo huweza kutumika  kutengenezwa au kuundwa kwa kutumia neno "do". mfano;

Do you have your shoes mended every morning? ~ I don't have them mended,  I mend them myself.

He was talking about having central heating put in. Did he have it put in the end?

Does he have his breakfast prepared?  ~ I don't think so, but what I know is that, he prepares it himself.

  Pia yaweza ikatumika vilevile katika progressive tenses (Continuous tenses):

  I am not intending to have lunch here, I am having my lunch prepared at Nuru's home.

While he was having his book written, his teacher rebuked him.

MUUNDO KWA KUTUMIA NENO "GET" BADALA YA NENO "HAVE"

   Tunaweza kupata neno jingine ambalo huweza kutumika badala ya neno "have" lakini sio kila wakati, litatumika tu pale tunapotaka kunamtaja mfanyaji wa kitendo;

   She got him to push her car from the mud  as it was crashed  .= alimshawishi/ alimuajiri/alimuomba amsukumie gari hilo (Neno "Get" hapa ni katika kumshawishi mtu akufanyie kitu iwe ni kwa kumuomba au kwa malipo kama ilivyo kwenye "have") hapo juu.

 Neno "Have" hutumika likiwa na bare infinitive/infinitive tupu (Infinitive without "to"/infinitive bila neno "to") kwa maana hiyo hiyo moja tuliyoitaja hapo juu, mfano;

  She had him to push her car from the mud. lakini muundo wa get ni wa kawaida zaidi kutumika katika Kiingereza cha Uingereza (British English)

MUUNDO WA HAVE + OBJECT + PAST PARTICIPLE katika maongezi ya kufanyiwa mabaya;

(C) Muundo wa kanuni hii "Have + object + past participle" hutumika katika maongezi katika kuchukua nafasi ya mtendewa (passive voice), kikawaida yule anayehusika na ajali au mabalaa au bahati mbaya nyinginezo Kwa mfano; 

Badala ya kusema

"Her car was stolen as she was watching TV in his sitting room". utasema

"She had her car stolen as she was watching TV in her sitting room". Na badala ya kusema hivi;

"Their fingers were cut as they were fighting the armed robbers." utasema;

"They had their fingers cut as they were fighting the armed robbers". (Kumbuka kuwa neno "as" hapo juu lina maana sawa na neno "when" ambalo kwa Kiswahili ni "wakati" (Mfano, "Wakati alipokuwa...")

   Itaonekana kuwa, katika sehemu B hapo juu, subject (mfanyaji au mhusika wa kitendo) ndiye huagiza kitendo kikafanyika, lakini hapa katika sehemu C (Yaani sehemu hii), subject ndiye ambaye hupata shida au huumia kutokana na matokeo ya kitendo. subject yaweza kuwa kitu. mfano;

The houses had their roofs ripped off the gale.

  Kumbuka kuwa neno "have" laweza kuchukuliwa mahali pake likakaa neno "get" hapa katika sehemu hapa,

  •     Abdul got his book stolen through his carelessness (Vitabu vyake viliibiwa).

  •     The man got his car crashed as a result of his recklessly driving.  

  •     He got his house torched.

 Neno had + better + bare infinitive (Yaani "had" ikifuatiwa na neno "Better" na kuwa "Had better" likifuatiwa na bare infinitive

       Neno "Had" hapa ni wakati uliopita usiokamilika, maana yake vile vile huwa wakati ujao au uliopo, mfano

  •   I had better tell him the truth tomorrow. (Maana yake ni kuwa, "Ingekuwa vizuri kumueleza ukweli kesho.)

  • I had better tell him the truth now. ("Ingekuwa vizuri nimweleze ukweli sasa")

  • You'd better go to school tomorrow.

  •  You'd (You had) better go to school now ("Ingekuwa vizuri uende shule sasa") hii inaonyesha wakati huu uliopo na hiyo ya kwanza huonyesha wakati uliopita.

     Kama tunavyo jua lugha ni kuwa, kuna maneno ya kukubali na ya kukanusha (negative form), katika sehemu hii, ukikanusha utatumia neno ambalo ni la kawaida kutumika kukanushia, neno hilo ni "Not" na linakuwa katika sentensi kama ifuatavyo;

  You'd better (You had better) not miss the first flight. ("Haingekuwa vizuri" au "Haingekuwa busara kukosa ndege ya kwanza" au "Nakushauri usiikose" au "Nakuonya usiikose" ) au waweza kuifupisha na kusema katika sentensi za maulizo (Interrogative sentences) 

"Je, haingekuwa vizuri kumuomba kwanza kabla hujaichukua?" inakuwa hivi,

" Hadn't you better ask him first before taking it?"

Tunapotaka kumshauri mtu, mara nyingi neno "You had better". Hii hutumika sana katika Kiingereza kwa ushauri  na maana yake ni kuwa "ingekuwa vizuri kwako kufanya jambo fulani, Mfano "You had better start your works now" (= ingekuwa vizuri ukianza kazi zako sasa hivi). 

   Neno "Had better" ni sahihi kutumia katika sentensi za kuuliza maswali (Interrogative) ya kawaida lakini sio kawaida sana kuwakuta watu wanalitumia katika hali kama hii, wakati mwingine hutumika katika negative interrogative (Maswali kanushi). kama hivyo tulivyoona hapo juu katika sentensi hii;

" Hadn't you better ask him first before taking it?"

  Tazama kanuni ifuatayo katika muundo huu uliobeba neno hili na zingatie matumizi na maana ya muundo huu katika sentensi,

  Have + Object + present participle (..ing)   (Have + Mtendewa + neno lililoishia na ..ing> mfano "Going" n.k)

 Mifano;

   "I'll have you speaking English in three months" (Yaani kutokana na matunda ya jitihada yangu inshaaAllah, utakuwa ukiongea Kiingereza katika miezi mitatu)

    Yaweza ikatumika pia katika past au present (Wakati uliopita au uliopo), Mathalan

"He had them all learning" (Aliwafundisha au aliwalipia au aliwapa moyo au aliwashawishi wote wasome )

   Vile vile yaweza kutumika katika interrogative form (maulizo) kama ifuatavyo;

    "Will you really have me speaking English in three months?" (Kweli utaniwezesha niongee Kiingereza katika miezi mitatu?).

 "I have him committing to memory the noble Qur'aan" (Mimi huwa namshawishi au nampa moyo ahifadhi Qur'aan Tukufu"). (Hapa ni katika simple present (Wakati uliopo)

 Lakini kumbuka kuwa sio mara nyingi hutumika kukanusha "Negative form" Katika sentensi mbili za mwisho hapo juu, ya kwanza hudokeza wakati uliopita na ya pili ni wakati ujao)

   Katika kukupa mifano zaidi ya kutumia neno hili, tazama sentensi hizi;

 "If you drive on the road recklessly you will have the pedestrians complaining" (Ikiwa utaendesha kwa fujo barabarani watembeaji kwa miguu watakulalamikia)

   "If Hilal teach English free of charge he would have everyone joining his class" (Kama hilal angefundisha Kiingereza bure, kila mtu angemjia darasani kwake)

   Katika maneno yaliyoandikwa kwa kukolezwa hapo juu, neno "ku" laonyesha kuwa "Wewe umefanyiwa" mfano "Watakulalamikia" ina maana "watakulaumu wewe" na herufi  "m" ina maana yeye atafanyiwa, mfano;

 Kila mtu angemjia. `

Mifano mingine ni kama vile

      "If you won't have your shoes mended, you won't have anyone to respect you" (=kama hutashonewa kiatu chako, hutaheshimika)

       "I don't have her coming at my home when I drink".

  Muundo huo waweza kutumika katika kukanusha na kuuliza (negative and interrogative form) kama unavyoona hapo juu, muundo huu pia hutumika sana kwa vitendo ambavyo vinavyomkera au kumbughudhi mhusika/mtajwa (subject). mfano,

  "When he became famous, many people came at his home often and squandered much time in talking with him"

= Alipokuwa maarufu watu wengi walikuja nyumbani kwake mara kwa mara na kupoteza muda mwingi kuongea naye

  Lakini muundo wa I won't have + object + present participle kwa kawaida huwa na maana ya "Sito/sitakubali hili.

    Mfano, ukitaka kusema "Sitamruhusu/sitamkubalia aingie hapa na nguo zake chafu" itakuwa hivi

"I won't have him enter here in his dirty clothes"

Mengineyo ni kama hivi;

"I won't have him using my computer"

"I won't have my son drinking"

   Kwa ufupi tumeona baadhi ya matumizi ya neno have kwa ufupi. Kumbuka kuwa neno hilo pia huweza kutumika kuelezea wajibu (kama ambavyo inshaaAllah tutaona baadaye katika mada itakayofuatia) Vile vile lina maana ya kuwa na kitu (Kumiliki kitu) mfano;

I have a red car. Juma has a blue pen. (Nina gari jekundu. Juma ana kalamu ya bluu).

Have ina maana ya "Kula" mfano; I have had lunch" (Simple present tense) Nimekula chakula cha mchana" na wakati uliopita timilifu (past perfect tense) huwa hivi "I had had lunch"

  Tunategemea kuandaa mazoezi ya kutosha katika kukamilika kwa somo letu hili;

Imeandaliwa na

Muhseen bin Rajab;