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Muhraja's après ski & nocturnal English language course

Tenses (nyakati)                               Home

Present perfect progressive:

    Muundo:

          Hii tense huundwa kwa kutumia present perfect ya verb "To be" ikifuatiwa na present participle.

    Kwa mifano na maelezo zaidi juu ya tense hii, angalia mifano hapo chini kabla hatujaendelea na somo letu hili,

   

 

Subject have been

present participle

They  have been walking
She  has been driving.
We have been denying...


Affirmative (maelezo)

 

 

She

has been

typing.

Negative (ukanusho)    
We have been mopping. 
Interrogative (Maulizo)    
Have they been arriving?
Interrogative negative (Maulizo makanusho)
Haven't you been doing?

 Tense hii hutumika kuelezea tukio au kitendo kilichoanza kufanyika wakati uliopita na bado kikawa kinaendelea, mfano dogo katika lugha ya Kiswahili ni kama hivi;

     Wewe una rafiki yako, mmeahidiana kukutana saa tatu kamili asubuhi, umefika sehemu mliyoahidiana saa moja unusu, umesubiri hadi saa imefika mliyoahidiana, muda umezidi kwenda lakini bado hajafika, imepita muda kidogo naye akawa amekuita kwenye simu, "Samahani, nimechelewa, Je, umekuwa unanisubiri muda mrefu?" Katika maongezi, ukamuambia, "Nimekuwa ninakusubiri hapa tangu saa mbili kamili (Na bado niko hapa nasubiri)". Hivi ndivyo utakavyo sema katika Lugha ya Kiswahili kwa kuwa maneno "nimekuwa nina... + kitendo " humaanisha kuwa kitendo hicho kilianza kitambo na kimekuwa kikiendelea kwa muda mrefu, Basi hata kwa Kiingereza, kuna kanuni zake juu ya sentensi za namna hii,

  Nazo ni kama unavyoona hapo juu, hatuna budi sasa tuibadili kauli hii kwa Kiingereza, utasema,

  Rafiki yako:  "I am sorry, I am late, Have you been waiting long?"

   Wewe "I have been waiting for you since 8:00 (and still I haven't turned up).

    Kumbuka kuwa, baadhi ya verbs (Vitenzi) hazitumiki katika kutengenezea au kuunda sentensi za namna hii, mfano wa verbs hizi huweza kugawanywa kama ifuatavyo;

  Vitendo vinavyotokea visivyoweza kuzuilika (Involuntary actions) kama vile

     kuhisi, kusikia, kuona, kunusa, pia kutambua (Feel, see, hear, observe, smell and notice) na verbs kama feel, look na taste hutumika kama link verbs;

 Kwa verbs kama look, smell, taste huweza kutumika lakini kwa kuzingatia yafuatayo (Click hapa)

  lakini baadhi ya hizo zaweza kutumika katika muundo huu katika hali fulani fulani,

   Kwahiyo tunaweza kusema

    Hilal has been seeing about a work permit for Nuru.

    He has been hearing all about his operation.

    I've been thinking it over.

        Kwa nyongeza, neno "want" na "wish" vile vile huweza kutumika katika tense hii.

   Ni lazima tujue kuwa "present perfect progressive haina passive. Passive ambayo yaweza kutumika na ikafanana na kuchukua nafasi ya hii, ni kama hivi;

 Hilal has been driving the car inakuwa "The car has been driven' (Passive ya present perfect)

  (i) Ufananisho wa present perfect na perfect progressive.

    Kitendo ambacho kilianza wakati uliopita na kikawa kinaendelea au ndio kimekwisha tu, kikiwa na baadhi ya verbs, huweza kuelezwa kwa aidha present perfect au present perfect progressive. Verbs ambazo zaweza kutumika ni kama vile lie, expect, hope, learn, live, look, rain, sleep, want, work, wait, teach, study, stay, snow, sit. 

   How long have you stayed in Japan?

  How long have you been staying in Japan?

   You have waited for an hour.

   You have been waiting for an hour.

   It has rained since 7:00.

  It has been raining since 7:00.

  They have expected to see him for a long time.

 They have been expecting to see him for a long time.

     Hii haiwezekani kutumika ikiwa pamoja na verbs ambazo hazitumiki katika progressive forms, present perfect progressive haiwezi kukaimu au kuchukua nafasi ya present perfect katika mifano ifuatayo.

  They have always had a sewing machine.

  She's been in German since 1990.

  How long have you known that?

   Zingatia kuwa, present perfect progressive yaweza ikatumika ikiwa na kiambishi cha wakati (Time phrase) au bila kiambishi hicho. Katika njia hii, hutofautiana na present perfect, ambayo huelezea tu aina hii ya kitendo  kama kiambishi cha wakati kimetiwa humo kama vile maneno "For two hours, since Yesterday, never. Wakati inapotumika bila kiambishi cha wakati cha aina hii, present perfect hurejea kitendo kimoja kilicho kamilifu.

  (ii)  Kitendo kinachojirudia rudia katika present perfect chaweza wakati mwingine kikaelezeka na present perfect progressive kama kitendo kinachoendelea. Mfano;

   I have delivered fifteen blocks since dusk.

   I have been delivering blocks since dusk.

   I have tried to call you on the phone five times.

   I have been trying to call you on the phone.

    Yabidi kuzingatia sana kuwa, present perfect progressive hueleza kitendo ambacho hakijakatishwa; hatutumii tense hii wakati tunapotaja  mara ngapi kitendo kimekuwa kinajirudia kufanyika au idadi ya vitendo ambavyo vimekuwa vikifanyika.

(iii) Kunayo tofauti kati ya kitendo kimoja katika present perfect na kitendo kimoja katika present perfect progressive,

  (i) I've eaten lunch    (Humaanisha kuwa chakula kimekwisha / kimeliwa tayari)  

  (ii) I've been eating lunch. (Hii ni namna nilivyotumia muda wangu katika kula, iwe ni saa zima au zaidi, na hii haimaanishi kuwa kitendo hicho kimekwisha, sio lazima kuwa kitendo hicho kimekwisha)

   Sentensi hizo hapo juu, tukizifasiri kwa Kiswahili huweza kuwa kama hivi;

 (i) Nimekula chakula cha mchana.  (I have eaten lunch) na hapa ni wazi kuwa bila shaka chakula kimekwisha.

 (ii) Nimekuwa ninakula chakula cha mchana (I have been eating luch) Hapa sio lazima kuwa kitendo kimekwisha. kwa kuwa naweza kusema, Nimekuwa ninakula chakula cha mchana tangu dakika tano zilizopita).

  Zingatia kuwa, pia katika kitendo kimoja katika present perfect progressive huendelea hadi ule wakati wa kuongea, au karibu kabisa na wakati huo. tazama mifano niliyotoa hapo juu katika kuelezea sentensi hizo kwa Kiswahili, mifano mingine ni kama hivi;

 A:  She has bathed her son (Kitendo hiki kinawezekana kimefanyika muda mfupi sana uliopita au muda si mrefu)

B: She has been bathing her son (Inawezekana kabisa kuwa bado anamuogesha mtoto wake).

  Ninakutakia kila la kheri katika masomo yako

Muhseen Bin Rajab (canoksan)

Wednesday, August 21, 2002