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canoksanhilal Online Swahili English Page

 

 canoksanhilal online English Swahili page

A : Present perfect  (Wakati uliopo hali timilifu)

Muundo na matumizi yake

   Tense hii imeundwa na kiambishi cha wakati uliopo (present tense)  cha neno "have" + na cha wakati uliopita (past participle)  ya kitenzi (verb) husika. Mfano: ukitaka kusema "Nimekula" itakuwa hivi; "I have eaten.  Past participle katika regular verbs (vitenzi dawama/ vitenzi visivyobadilika badilika) huwa katika hali au muundo sawa na past tense ya verb hiyo, mfano neno work, watch,na  walk past tense za maneno hayo na past participle zake huwa ni worked, watched na walked,

       Kwa ufupi ni kama ifuatavyo katika kutengeneza sentensi zinazofungamana na tense hii. ni lazima tuzingatie kuwa, sentensi tutaziweka katika hali nne za miundo, muundo wa kwanza ni sentensi maelezo (affirmative form), hii hutoa taarifa au maelezo, ya pili ni muundo wa kukanusha (negative form) na hii hutudokeza neno "hapana" (not), sentensi hii hukataa kufanyika kwa tendo au hali kwa kutumia neno "not". na ya tatu  muundo wa maulizo (Interrogative form) na hii hutumika kuuliza juu ya uhakika wa kitu kufanyika kwake au kudhibitishiwa, pia tuna hali ya muundo wa nne inayoitwa "negative interrogative" . Hii hutumika kuelezea kitu kwa kukanusha. Kila sentensi ina muundo wake maalum, kama ilivyo hapo chini.

Affirmative (Maelezo) Negative (Ukanusho) Negative Interrogative (Maulizo ya kukanusha)
I have walked I have not walked  Have I not walked?
You have walked You have not walked Have you not walked?
He/she/it has walked He/she/it has not walked Has He/she/it not walked
We have walked We have not walked Have we not walked?
You have walked You have not walked Have you not walked?
They have walked They have not walked Have they not walked?

 interrogative itakuwa kama hivi; Have I walked? n.k.

  Amma katika muundo wa pili (interrogative form). Huu ni sawa na ule unaoitwa negative interrogative form lakini tofauti yake neno "not" . kwani katika muundo huu neno hilo halitakuwepo. mfano

Have I worked? 

Have they done off their home work? na jibu lake laweza kuwa

No. They haven't done it yet.  au 

"Yes. They've done it"

Mara nyingi maneno "have" na "has" hufupishwa kwa kuandikwa kama 've na 's kwa mfano

I've just done off, he’s eaten   na yanakuwa hayasikiki katika kutamkwa katika mazungumzo ya kawaida mara nyingi, mfano “Where’ve you been?

  Matumizi ya present perfect,

  Tense hii ni mchanganyiko kati ya present na past (Wakati uliopita ma uliopita), inamaanisha na kuonyesha mafungamano au uhusiano mkubwa kati ya wakati uliopo na uliopita na mara nyingi hutumika katika mazungumzo, barua, magazeti na TV pia katika maredio.

   Present perfect tense (wakati uliopo hali timilifu) ikitumika ikiwa na neno "just" humaanisha kuwa kitendo kilichotajwa ndio kimekwisha kumalizika hivi punde tu, yaani ndio kimemalizika sasa hivi. tazama mifano hii hapa

 I have just eaten     (= sasa tu hivi ni dakika chache tu zimepita tangu nimalize kula)

  Hilal has just gone out

  Hii ina maana Hilal alitoka nje dakika chache sana zilizopita na hajarudi bado ndani. Vile vile yaweza kutumika katika (hali ya kukanusha au maulizo) (negative  or interrogative form) ikiwa na neno hilo hilo "just". Mfano, “Je, sasa hivi tu ndio ametoka?” inakuwa hivi,

Has he just gone out?

(i) Present perfect hutumika katika vitendo vilivyokwisha fanyika hivi punde tu ambavyo muda wake haujulikani/haukutajwa.

 I've red the instruction but I don’t understand them.

Have you had lunch? Yes. I have had it /No. I haven’t had it yet.

(ii) Kwa kawaida vitendo ambavyo vimekwisha tu katika wakati uliopo hali timilifu (present perfect)  huwa na athari katika wakati uliopo, Mfano

 You have broken your ankle (Umevunjika kifundo chako cha mguu na kuna uwezekano kuwa bado unatibiwa au bado kinauma)

I’ve eaten (Nimekula na bado nimeshiba)

You’ve washed your clothes (Bado zipo kwenye beseni zimelowekwa au kwenye kamba zimeanikwa)

  Neno “Not yet” huwa na maana ya  “bado” katika somo hili hapa chini

  Hilal hasn't arrived yet. (= Hilal bado anasubiriwa na hajafika). mfano mwingine ni kama

  I haven't done it yet.

B. Present perfect, (wakati uliopo timilifu na Kazi yake)

    Present Perfect hutumika kuonyesha uhusiano kati ya wakati uliopo na uliopita (present and past) wakati wa kufanyika kwa kitendo ni kabla ya sasa lakini usio maalum, na sisi mara nyingi tunatarajia zaidi matokeo ya kitendo kuliko kitendo chenyewe. Yaani hatuwi na uzito katika kueleza wakati ambao kimefanyika kitendo bali uzito unakuwa katika matokeo ya kitendo hicho, mfano ukisema

I already have ironed my clothes  (Yaani "Nimepasi nguo yangu tayari"). hapa wewe hutilii uzito kuwa wakati gani umepasi nguo hizo, bali uzito ni matokeo ya kupasi kwako nguo zako. mifano mingine ni kama vile

What have you done at school today?  (Umefanya nini shuleni leo). Hapa tunachojali kupata maelezo au kuonyeshwa ni kilichofanyika huko shuleni katika siku hiyo bila kujali ilikuwa ni muda gani, lakini tukisema hivi;

What did you do at school today?      (ina maana ya kuwa ulifanya nini shuleni leo) na hapa muulizwaji atahitaji kujua wakati gani huo anaouliziwa juu ya kitendo chake hicho, na bila shaka hii inaonyesha wakati maalumu)

Kumbuka! Verb  za Kiingereza haziingiliani kwa muundo na kwa matumizi na verb za Kiswahili, Kwa Muhtasari ni kama ifuatavyo;

Present perfect hutumika kuelezea:

A.Kitendo au hali ambayo ilianza wakati uliopita na kuendelea hadi wakati tulionao, mfano; Nimeishi Dar es Salaam tangu mwaka 1995 (hadi sasa ninaishi) huwa kama hivi katika Kiingereza "I have lived in Dar es Salaam since 1995
 

B. Kitendo kinachofanyika wakati wa kipindi ambacho hakijaisha, mfano "Amekuwa yuko kwenye sinema mara mbili katika juma hili: huwa hivi, She has been to the cinema twice this week (= na wiki bado haijaisha.)

C. Kitendo kinachojirudia katika kipindi kisicho maalumu (kisichojulikana) kati ya wakati uliopita na sasa. mfano:

 Tumetembelea Tanzania mara kadhaa.  itakuwa hivi "We have visited Tanzania several times.

D. Kitendo ambacho kimemalizika katika muda mfupi sana uliopita huelezewa kwa kufungamanishwa au kunganishwa na neno "Just"  Kwa mfano: We have just done off all our works.

E. Kitendo wakati kikiwa kinaelezwa na wakati muda wa kufanyika kwa kitendo hicho sio muhimu kwetu, mfano: He has read '"The river between'. (Matokeo ya kusoma ni muhimu kwetu kujua lakini sio muda wa kusoma)

  Mifano mingine ni kama vile "The Children have had lunch.

Mifano mingine ni:

Wakati tunataka kueleza zaidi kuhusu "Lini" (When), wapi (Where), (who) "nani" tunatumia simple past tense

A Vitendo vilivyoanza katika wakati uliopita na kuendelea hadi wakati uliopo.
a. They haven't lived here for years.
b. She has worked in the bank for five years.
c. We have had the same car for ten years.
d. Have you played the piano since you were a child?

2. Inapokuwa  kipindi cha wakati wa kufanyika kitendo huonyesha hali ya kutomalizika.
a. I have worked hard this week.
b. It has rained a lot this year.
c. We haven't seen her today.

3. Vitendo vilivyojirudia rudia katika kipindi kisichoelezeka kati ya wakati uliopita na sasa.
a. They have seen that film six times.
b. It has happened several times already.
c. She has visited them frequently.
d. We have eaten at that restaurant many times.

4. Vitendo vilivyomalizika tu punde na huongezewa neno just (+just).
a. Have you just finished work?
b. I have just eaten.
c. We have just seen her.
d. Has he just left?

5. Wakati wakati mahsuus (Précis time) wa kitendo sio muhimu kwetu au haujulikani.
a. Someone has taken my tea!
b. Have you seen 'Gone with the Wind'?
c. She's studied Swahili, English and Arabic.

Kwa kuendelea na masomo ya mada hii click hapa  

        By Muhseen bin Rajab

Last edited 27 June 2002