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TENSES

    PAST PERFECT

 Past perfect, Kanuni au muundo wake.
  Past Perfect tense katika Kiingreza imegawanyika katika sehemu kuu mbili: past tense ya verb to have (had) + na past participle ya kitenzi kikuu.

Subject had

past participle

We had denied...


Affirmative

 

 

She

had

given.

Negative    
We hadn't asked.
Interrogative    
Had they arrived?
Interrogative negative
Hadn't you finished?

Mfano: to deny, Past perfect

Affirmative

Negative

Interrogative

I had denied

I hadn't denied

Had I denied?

You had denied

You hadn't denied

Had you denied?

He, she, it had denied

He hadn't denied

Had she denied?

We had denied

We hadn't denied

Had we denied?

You had denied

You hadn't denied

Had you denied?

They had denied

They hadn't denied

Had they denied?

   Kazi za past perfect,
  Past perfect hurejea wakati mapema kidogo kabla ya sasa hivi. Hutumika kuweka bayana kuwa tukio moja limefanyika kabla ya jingine katika kipindi kilichopita. Haidhuru kitendo au tukio gani lililotanguliwa kutajwa kwanza kabla ya jingine - tense hii huweka bayana kabisa (huweka wazi)ni lipi tukio limetangulia kwanza.

  Katika mifano hii, tukio A ni la kwanza, na tukio B ni la pili au lililofuatia:

a.

Hilal had gone out

as you arrived back.

Tukio A

tukio B

b.

I had saved my document

before the computer crashed.

Event A

Event B

c.
When they arrived
we had already started cooking
Event B
Event A
d.
He was very tired
because he hadn't slept well.
Event B
Event A

Past perfect + just
'Just' hutumika ikiwa na past perfect kurejea tukio ambalo lilikuwa limefanyika muda mfupi tu mapema kabla ya sasa, mfano.

a. The bus had just left as I arrived at the terminal.
b. She had just left the room when the police arrived.
c. I had just put the washing out when it started to rain.