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  Nouns (majina)

   Katika lugha yoyote tunayoisoma ni bora sana tuanze na kusoma majina ya vitu mbalimbali katika lugha hiyo.

Kwani uhakika ni kuwa jina halibadiliki kwa njia yoyote ile. kwa maana hiyo basi, tunaanza na majina ya vitu, majina au jina kwa Lugha ya Kiingereza huitwa "NOUNS". (hutamkwa kwa OU-1 yaani "OU" ya kundi la kwanza tulilosoma ambalo husomwa herufi hizo mbili kama "AU", kwa maana hiyo itatamkwa "nauns")

     "Noun" ni jina la kitu chochote, sehemu, mahali au mtu n.k. Mfano wa "noun" ni kama "Boy, girl, man, woman, school, Muhsin, Hilal, tree, pain, cold, hot, mango, cousin" na kadhaalika.

 Nouns (majina) mengine ni kama "hospital, police station, bus station, school, shop, town, mosque, church, market, auction mart,

     Kuna nouns ziitwazo "Proper nouns"  na "Common nouns". tazama maelezo hapo chini.

                                    Proper nouns ni nouns ambazo humtaja mtu maalum kwa jina lake halisi, au mahali

               au kitu tena kwa jina halisi. mfano wa proper nouns ni Dar Es Salaam, Temeke, Tanzania, Kenya,

               Uganda, Kwa upande wa majina ya mahali, amma kwa majina ya watu ni kama  Muhseen,

              Ahmad, Hilal, Abdurrahmaan, Nurdiyn, Ali, Hamza na kadhaalika. Kwa upande wa poper nouns

              za vitu ni Mercedes Benz, Datsun, Toyota n.k

                           Common nouns ni  nouns ambazo humtaja mtu yeyote, kitu chochote au mahala

                           popote. Mifano ya common nouns ni country, city, president, ambassador, lorry,

                          wheel barrow na kadhaalika.

                Tofauti kati ya common nouns na proper nouns ni kuwa proper nouns ni mahsuus, yaani khaaswa

            kwa vitu au watu maalum au mahali maalum. na common nouns sio mahsus bali ni jamii ya vitu au watu

              yaani ni kitu au mtu au mahala popote.Tumetaja Toyota kama "proper noun" kutoka kwenye 'cars'

             ambayo ni common. kwenye "cars" kuna Datsun, Toyota, Mitsubishi n.k

              Sifa za proper nouns ni kuwa huanza kwa herufi kubwa hata ikiwa na neno zaidi ya moja. mfano,

              Kilimanjaro Muslims Students Association.

 Tunazo "nouns" za namna mbalimbali kama vile yale yanayohesabika na yale yasiyo hesabika, majina ya vitu vinavyohesabika kama vile, "A boy" yaani mvulana, ambapo hujulikana ni mmoja, na wakiwa wengi hujulikana ni wangapi kwa kule kuhesabiwa, huitwa majina ya kuhesabika ambapo kwa Kiingereza hujulikana kama "count nouns". Na majina ya namna hii huweza kuwekwa katika umoja au wingi, Mifano;

  Ikiwa 'Common Noun' (jina hilo) lamtaja mtu au kitu kimoja, Nouns (jina hilo) ni singular (umoja)

         Singular                             plural

         Stove                               stoves

         Spoon                              spoons

         Nose                                noses

         fire dog                            fire dogs

        Computer                        computers.

  Lakini ikumbukwe kuwa hapa ni kwa 'countable nouns' (majina ya vitu vihesabikavyo)  pekee, sio

kwa vitu visivyo hesabika kama vile 'fire' (moto), sugar (sukari)  n.k. angalia mifano ya vitu vihesabikavyo hapo chini na namna ya kuvihesabu;

 Two boys.

Three dogs,

Seven jackfruits  na kadhaalika.

tazama mifano zaidi hapo chini

Baadhi ya ‘nouns’ huishia na ‘y’ baada ya kufuatiwa na ‘consonant’.( yaani herufi zilizoitangulia ‘y’ ambayo ndiyo ya mwisho ziwe ni herufi zote isipokuwa ‘vowel’ (a, e, I, o, u). mfano, ziwe mojawapo kati ya hizi;

By, au cy, dy, fy, gy, hy, jy, ky, ly, my, ny, py, qy, ry, sy, ty, vy, xy, wy, zy ‘nouns’ zinazo ishia kama kama hizo na ni ‘countable nouns’(majina ya vitu vihesabikavyo). Huondolewa ‘y’ ikiwa katika plural (wingi)(herufi ya mwishoni na kuwekwa badala yake herufi tatu, yaani ‘ies’)

  Tazama mifano hapo chini;

 

SINGULAR                                         PLURAL

 

A baby                                                      babies.

An army                                                   armies.

A fly                                                         flies.

A city                                                       cities.

A body                                                     bodies.

A cry                                                       cries

A nappy                                                  nappies

A poppy                                                  poppies

 

    Kumbuka kuwa sio kila noun yenye kuishia na ‘y’ huongezewa ‘ies’ mwishoni, bali ni zile zilizofuatiwa na consonants tu kama tulivyoonyesha hapo juu. Ama ikiwa herufi ‘y’ imetanguliwa na vowel, tutaongezea s kama kawaida mwishoni. Mathalan;

 

SINGULAR                                        PLURAL

 

Boy                                                      boys.

Toy                                                      toys

 

Zipo pia nouns ambazo hazifuati kanuni hizi tulizozitaja, na ni nouns ambazo waweza kukutana nazo mara kwa mara. Hizi ni baadhi tu;

 

SINGULAR (Umoja)                                          PLURAL. (wingi)

 

Man                                                                       men

Woman                                                                 women.

Child                                                                     children.

Foot                                                                      feet.

Ox                                                                         oxen.

Thesis                                                                   theses.

Buffalo                                                                 bufallo.

Tooth                                                                    teeth.

Louse                                                                    lice.

Mouse                                                                   mice.

Sheep                                                                    sheep.

Deer                                                                      deer.

Crisis                                                                    crises.

Oasis                                                                    oases.

 

Majina (nouns) nyingine huishia na herufi ‘f’, majina kama haya yakiwa katika wingi hubadilika kwa kuongezewa herufi ‘ves’ baada ya kuondolewa herufi ‘f’. Tazama mifano hapo chini;

SINGULAR                                PLURAL.

 Leaf                                             leaves

Half                                             halves.

Wolf                                            wolves.

Hoof                                            hooves.

Wife                                            wives.

Knife                                          knives

Life                                             lives.

 

   Sio yote yanayoishia na ‘f’ au ‘fe’ yataongezewa ‘ves’ baada ya kuondolewa ‘f’. Bali tu machache sana yatabaki kama yalivyo na kuongezewa s mwishoni.mifano katika maneno hapo chini.

 Roof, belief, proof, safe, chief.

 

Kwa kawaida katika Kiingereza tunapoongelea idadi ya vitu, tunataja kwanza namba ya idadi vile vitu na kisha tunafuatilizia kwa jina lake, Kwa Kiswahili ni tofauti na hivi. katika Kiswahili tunataja kwanza vile vitu na kisha kukifuatiliza kwa namba yake ya idadi.

Mfano;

Katika Kiswahili tunasema, "Mapera manne", Watoto saba, Kijiji kimoja' na kadhaalika.

Kwa Kiingereza yatakiwa kusema katika hali hii hapa chini.

Manne mapera,  saba watoto,  Kimoja kijiji. Na hivyo kwa maana hiyo basi, maneno hayo yatakuwa kama hivi hapo chini.

"Four guavas,    seven children, One village."

Namna ya kuandika Kiingereza na Kutamka: Jina lolote la kiingereza lililo na umoja na wingi, huongezewa

   - 's mwishoni kwa ajili ya kuthibitisha wingi wake, mfano: A  car  (kaa)  wingi wake ni  cars  (kaaz) (yaani magari)

A goat  (got) maana yake mbuzi (mmoja) wakiwa wengi utaongezea  s" na itasomeka kama  (goats) (gots)

 Kwa majina  yaishiayo na 'y' yakiwa yemefuatiwa na konsonanti nyuma yake mfano "a bakery"  "a salary" 

 "a strawberry".  maneno mengine ni kama vile;

"An enemy" "a baby"  "a bunny" "a puppy" yote haya huondolewa  heruti ya mwisho ("Y) na kuwekwa sehemu iliyoondolewa herufi tatu, nazo ni "-ies" kwa maana hiyo basi. maneno hayo hapo juu wingi wake utakuwa unaandikwa kama ifuatavyo:

 UMOJA                                                                                                                  WINGI

"A bakery" (Bekari/ sehemu ya kuoka mikate)                                                   Bakeries  (bekariz)

"A Salary" (salare /mshahara)                                                                        Salaries   (salariz)

A strawberry (strobari/ tunda nyanya)                                                            Strawberries. (strobariz)

"An enemy" (enemi/ adui)                                                                                enemies  (enemiz)

"Baby" (beibi/ mtoto)                                                                                  babies   (beibiz)

"A bunny" (bani / mtoto wa sungura)                                                               bunnies (baniz)

"A puppy" (papi / mtoto wa mbwa)                                                                  puppies. (papiz)

"A Pony"  (poni/ mnyama fulani aina ya punda)                                                  ponies.

 

WINGI KATIKA MAJINA YAISHIAYO NA "sh" "x" "ss" "z" "ch"

  Kwa kawaida majina ya vitu vinavyo hesabika  yanayoishia na herufi zilizo tajwa hapo juu, yakiwa katika hali ya wingi huongezewa herufi mbili bila kuondolewa herufi yoyote za mwhisho katika herufi zake. herufi zinazoongezwa ni  "es" na kutamkwa kwake ni kwa kutajwa wazi "e" "na 's" . kwa mfano : lioness  itakapoongezewa wingi na kuwa " lioness" ambayo hutamkwa kama "layoneses"

mfano wa majina ya vitu hivyo ni

  UMOJA     (matamshi yake)                                                                                WINGI

 Bush          (bush)                                                                                      bushes  (bushes)

 Brush        ( brash)                                                                                     brushes .(brashes)

 Box           (boks)                                                                                       boxes.  (bokses)

Princess         (prinses)                                                                               princesses. (prinseses)

Branch         (branch)                                                                                  branches   (branches).

 

NAMNA YA KUANDIKA NA KUTAMKA KWA JINA LINAOISHIA NA "O" LIKIWA KAIKA WINGI.

  Upo utaratibu wa kuandika wingi katika jina lililoishia na irabu "o". Hili hutamkwa kwa kuongezewa herufi mbili yaani "es" mwishoni bila kuondolewa kwa herufi yoyote wakati wa kuandika herufi hizi mbili. hapa nitatoa mifano michache tu.

UMOJA                                                                                                WINGI

Mango (mengo)                                                                                    mangoes

Mosquito (moskwito)                                                                              mosquitoes 

Tomato (tomato)                                                                                   tomatoes.

Potato  (poteito)                                                                                     potatoes

   Hapa yabidi tuwe waangalifu maan yake sio kila jina litakalokuwa limeishia na herufi hii litaongezewa  "es" likiwa katika wingi, hapa ni kwa yale majina yaliyo na asili kabisa ya Kiingreza na yamekubalika kupewa kanuni hii, kwani yapo maneno mengine yamekopwa katika lugha mbalimbali, mfano Kijapani tuna neno "kimono" na katika lugha nyingine tuna maneno kama "piano" .maneno kama haya hayatachukua kanuni hii bali yataongezewa tu "S" mw2ishoni kama yalivyo.

  Mfano:

UMOJA                                                                      WINGI

Kimono                                                                      kimonos

Piano                                                                          pianos

Bongo                                                                       bongos

N.B Ikumbukwe hapo juu kuwa maneno kama

"boy" "toy" "key" n.k yanaishia na "y" lakini hayatakuwa na sheria ya kuondolewa "Y" na kuingizwa "ies"

kwa kuwa yenyewe yamekosa hali moja miongoni mwa tulizozitaja, "y" iliyopo mwishoni haikufuatiwa na konsonanti bali imefuatiwa na irabu (a, e, i, o, u)

Kwa maana hiyo basi

Boy  wingi wake utakuwa ni     "boys"

Toy  wingi wake utakuwa ni     "toys"

Key  wingi wake utakuwa ni     "keys"

 

Maneno yenye wingi unaogeuza katikati ya neno: yapo majina ya Kiingereza ambayo yakiwa katika wingi hubadilisha katikati ya neno hilo kabisa: angalia mfano wa maneno hayo hapo chini:

Jina         linavyotamkwa                                Maana yake                       Wingi wake

Tooth       (tuuth)                                 Jino                            teeth

Goose       (guuz)                                bata maji                     geese.

Mouse      (maus)                                panya                         mice.

Louse       (lusi)                                   chawa                        lice.

 nategemea kuwa hadi hapa nitakuwa kwa kiasi fulani nimeeleweka na ninataraji kuendelea baadaye tukijaaliwa katika kuendeleza hapa tulipofikia juu ya wingi na umoja, lakini hadi hapa msomaji akitumia kanuni hizi natumaini zitaweza kumsaidia kwa kiasi kikubwa sana.

 

  sasa basi tuu

Amma yale yasiyo hesabika kama vile "AIDS (yaani UKIMWI, na kadhaalika kama nilivyoonyesha hapo chini, hujulikana kama "Non count nouns. Kuna aina za majina za "nouns" hizi, tazama hapo chini.

  Mifano ya majina yasiyohesabika ni kama;

 Sugar, water, flour, air, rice, dust, etc. Vile vile yapo majina ya vitu visivyo gusika, bali huhisika tu

Mfano, knowledge, beauty, anger, fear, love.  Yaani kwa Kiswahili ni, utaalamu, uzuri, ghadhabu, woga, upendo. Hizi hazina wingi kamwe,na hutumika katika umoja tu. Hatuwezi kusema

 "sugars, waters, na kadhaalika.

magonjwa /hali za kiafya

anthrax (kimeta) the flu rickets
AIDS (Ukimwi) influenza shingles (mkanda wa jeshi
arthritis measles smallpox
chicken pox (tete kuwanga) mumps tetanus
diabetes (kisukari) rabies tuberculosis (kifua kikuu)

 

 

MATUKIO YA KIASILI:

chill fog light (nuru) sleet
cold (mafua) frost lightning snow (hali ya kuanguka kwa theluji
darkness (giza) gravity (nguvu ya uvutano ya sayari)) mist sunshine
dew (unyevu) hail nature (asili) thunder (radi)
electricity (umeme) heat (joto) oxygen (oksijen) water (maji)
energy (nguvu) humidity pressure (shinikizo) wind (upepo)
fire (moto) ice (theluji) rain (mvua)  

 

RECREATION:

archery bridge jogging surfing (kupunga upepo)
aerobics checkers kickball (piga mpira) swimming (kuogelea)
badminton chess lawn darts tennis (tenesi)
baseball football poker water polo
bowling hockey soccer volleyball

NYAMA

YABISI

Mali ghafi

METALI

bacon (nyama ya nguruwe iliyo kaushwa) chocolate

(chokolet)

cloth (nguo) gold (dhahabu)
beef (nyama- ng'ombe) ice cream

(koni)

glass (kioo) silver (fedha)
chicken (nyama kuku) soap (sabuni) paper (karatasi) iron (chuma)
pork (nyama nguruwe) bread (bread) concrete(zege) steel (chuma cha pua)
lamb (nyama kondoo) ice (theluji) plastic (plastiki) brass
ham (sehemu ya paja na chini yake ya nyama) cheese (jibini) cotton (pamba) copper (shaba)
venison (nyama ya dig dig/ swala) mold wool mercury (zebaki)
meatloaf lard wood (kuni) lead
pastrami wax (nta) coal (mkaa ya mawe) chrome

 

ABSTRACT CONCEPTS:

advice freedom intelligence patriotism significance
anger fun justice peace sleep
applause happiness knowledge permission space
beauty hatred laughter proof strength
confidence health laziness pride time
courage help leisure progress truth
curiosity homework love recreation trouble
education honesty luck relaxation violence
energy hospitality lust sanity wealth
enjoyment ignorance music satisfaction wisdom
equality importance news selfishness work
evidence information patience serenity youth

Maji maji/vimiminika

Mifano:

water soda beer
  • There was water all over the floor.
  • Gasoline is expensive.
  • tea bleach wine
    coffee ammonia gravy
    cola gasoline soup
    milk kerosene oil
    juice anti-freeze blood
    lemonade paint saliva
    cream glue urine
    syrup lava sweat

    HEWA

    Mifano:

    air helium smoke
  • Steam is coming from the pot on the stove.
  • There is little oxygen on the moon.
  • smog pollution bad breath
    methane neon steam
    hydrogen ozone mist
    oxygen vapor nitrogen

     

     

    MASOMO / FANI ZA MASOMO

    MIFANO:

    English 101 biology geology
  • Economics is an important class.
  • Terry said physics was a difficult subject.
  • history accounting psychology
    economics Chinese 201 language arts
    photography political science vocabulary
    physics mathematics grammar

    BIDHAA KATIKA CHEMBECHEMBE

    MIFANO:

    rice (mchele) dirt (uchafu) salt
  • Flour is made from wheat.
  • Rice is eaten all over the world.
  • There is dirt under my fingernails.
  • corn sand (odongo) pepper (pilipili)
    barley (shayiri) gravel flour (unga)
    wheat  (ngano) grass (majani yaliyoota chini) sugar (sukari)
    cornmeal lint oregano
    oatmeal dust (vumbi) cinnamon (mdalasini)

    WHOLE GROUPS MADE COMPOSED OF SIMILAR ITEMS:

    kUNDI
    (non-count)

    SEHEMU
    (countable)

    Mifano:

    MAIL:

    (BARUA)

    postcard
    letter
    bill
    magazine
    note
  • The mail is here.
  • Two letters are yours.
  • BAGGAGE:
    LUGGAGE:

    (mizigo)

    suitcase
    overnight bag
    duffle bag
    cosmetics case
    garment bag
  • The luggage is heavy.
  • Three bags are mine.
  • MONEY:

    (Fedha)

    dollar bill
    quarter
    dime
    nickel
    penny
  • Money isn't free.
  • Here are two pennies.
  • FRUIT:

    (Matunda)

    banana
    peach
    strawberry
    watermelon
  • Fruit is good for you.
  • Two bananas cost one dollar.
  • JEWELRY:

    (sonara)

    ring
    watch
    bracelet
    necklace
    earring
  • Jewelry is expensive.
  • My rings are there.
  • FURNITURE:

    (fenicha)

    sofa
    chair
    table
    desk
    bed
  • Furniture isn't cheap.
  • The desks are empty.
  • GARBAGE:

    food wrapper
    banana peel
    box
    carton
  • Garbage smells bad.
  • Four cartons are in the trash.
  • SCENERY:

    mountain
    lake
    waterfall
    valley
  • The scenery is nice.
  • Two mountains have snow on top.
  • TRAFFIC:

    (barabara)

    car
    truck
    motorcycle
    police car
    bus
  • Traffic is awful!
  • The cars are parked illegally.
  • EQUIPMENT:

    (vifaa)

    stapler
    computer
    machine
    scissors
    telephone
  • The equipment is missing.
  • Two staplers are gone.
  • PROGRESS    
    BREAD loaf

    bun

    pastry

     

    ADVICE

    (USHAURI)

     

       
    TROUBLE    
    WEATHER    
    TRAVEL (USAFIRI)    
    ACCOMODATION    

    INFORMATION:

    (habari)

     

     

    fact
    tip
    note
    statistic

     

  • The information is important.
  • The facts are clear.
  •  
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